[current_date format=l,] [current_date]

From the “Imperial Plowing and Weaving Map” to the Mystery of Ancient Xiling State

We now see that “Imperial Plowing and Weaving” is a redraw of the “Offering to the Gods” of “Plowing and Weaving” using Lou Wang Shou’s drawing as the blueprint. It was done by the Jiangnan gentry during Kangxi’s southern tour in the 28th year of the Kangxi reign (1689). Seeing the vividness of each picture, Kangxi personally inscribed a poem on the top of each picture, with “Yuanjianzhai” stamps at the beginning of each poem, and “Kangxi Baohan” and “Baohe Taihe” stamps at the end, all in red color. They are now stored in the National Library and have become precious art relics to be appreciated and researched by future generations. The “Imperial Plowing and Weaving” was first painted in the early Shaoxing years of the Southern Song Dynasty

We now see that “Imperial Plowing and Weaving” is a redraw of the “Offering to the Gods” of “Plowing and Weaving” using Lou Wang Shou’s drawing as the blueprint. It was done by the Jiangnan gentry during Kangxi’s southern tour in the 28th year of the Kangxi reign (1689). Seeing the vividness of each picture, Kangxi personally inscribed a poem on the top of each picture, with “Yuanjianzhai” stamps at the beginning of each poem, and “Kangxi Baohan” and “Baohe Taihe” stamps at the end, all in red color. They are now stored in the National Library and have become precious art relics to be appreciated and researched by future generations.

The “Imperial Plowing and Weaving” was first painted in the early Shaoxing years of the Southern Song Dynasty by Lou Wang Shou; it was called “Plowing and Weaving.” “Plowing and Weaving” was divided into “plowing” and “weaving.” “Plowing” illustrates the whole process of agriculture from “soaking seeds” to “storage” in a total of 21 panels. “Weaving” includes a total of 24 drawings from “bathing silkworms” to ” Offering to the gods.” The “Picking cocoon,” “Selecting cocoon,” and “Sorting out silk” pictures were transported to ancient Greece and Rome through the Silk Road, and are still in the London Library collection, and were written about in “A Global History.” There are also a large number of “plowing” and “weaving” panels remaining in China. There are 27 of them on the wall painting of Huangze Temple, Guangyuan; and there are more than ten “plowing and weaving” panels on the pagoda in the village of Jinhe, Yanting Sanyuan Township, which is the hometown of Leizu (the legendary empress who discovered sericulture and invented the silk loom). When I was a child, I didn’t know what these drawings were, but they were so colorful and pretty that we named them “Little Wang Er Plowing the Field,” “Old Man Wang Soaking Seeds,” and “Silly Aunt Raising Silkworms,” etc.

The seven-character stanzas in the poem on Kangxi’s inscription  on the “Offering to the Gods” panel in “Imperial Plowing and Weaving” reads: “To work hard and worship God, happy to get the silk into the wish has been fulfilled, since the Xiling merit, ten thousand years of clothing has benefited boundless.” It can be seen that this is Kangxi’s description and praise for the content of the picture. He did not comment on the artistic value or his appreciation of the picture, but praised the custom of worshiping God and ancestors in Xiling, Western Shu, thus expressing his respect to the daughter of Xiling, Leizu, for her invention of planting mulberry, sericulture, silk, and benefiting Chinese descendants of the virtue for thousands of years.

The five-character poem of Sacrificial Gratitude on the picture of “Offering to the Gods” reads: “Before spring, the silkworm market was made, and the great event was spread to Western Shu; this state enjoys the heavenly silkworms and then worships the silk all over the eyes. Horse leather wrapped jade muscle, God is not insulted, although it was said that the matter is small, it is solved as a blessing to the people.” This is the analysis of the picture by the author Lou Wangshou. the poem expresses the author’s ideals and ambitions in life.

In the poem, the author first sketches out the silk breeders in this state of Western Shu. After the spring silk market, with a joyful mood, they worship the ancestor of the silkworm Leizu to bless them with a good harvest. The author sees the people’s reverence for people of merit and virtue and thinks that if he were to go to the battlefield, he must achieve something for his country, and even though he dies, he will be honored. If not, he would like to spend his life for the people and be a respected person like Leizu.

Additionally, it can be appreciated from this poem that Lou Wangshou saw from the surface of the picture the Western Sichuan state enjoying the first sericulture, focusing on his aspirations. While Kangxi, as the son of heaven (an emperor), looked farther ahead, he thought of the great achievements Leizu brought to the world as the leader of the ancient country of Xiling 5,000 years ago.

In the Tang Dynasty, Li Bai’s mentor, Zhao Lei, recorded in the “Tang Tablet” that Leizu was buried in the present Yanting Jinji Town, Qinglong Mountain, which was a part of the ancient country of Xiling but was questioned by some people. Over the years, many experts and scholars have examined the history and local historical records and proposed that the ancient Xiling country must be in line with the theory of many history books in six scientific standards, including era, geography, orientation, watersheds, near neighbors, and folklore, before concluding the real existence of the ancient country of Xiling. in 1992, the national experts and scholars held a symposium on Leizu in Yichang. At the conference, the experts and scholars argued a total of five different countries and regions, namely, Yichang, Huanggang, Xishui, Diexi, and Yanting. It turned out that the first four were not consistent with the standards and were hard to be connected to the ancient country of Xiling. The only one left, Yanting, was not only consistent with all six standards but also had evidence from many aspects, such as archaeology, local literature, and place names. Therefore, it was generally agreed by experts and scholars from around the country that Yanting County, Sichuan was the location of ancient Xiling and the hometown of Leizu. Other relics, legends, or ruins of Leizu’s trace were places where Leizu taught mulberry planting, and sericulture and lived when she traveled around the country. These places are also worth studying in Leizu culture. When the national authoritative history book “China Yanhuang Huidian” was published, special personnel were sent to Yanting to take pictures and write articles to be compiled into the book as the conclusion of the historiography. From then on, the controversy over the ancient Xiling land was settled.

Lou Wangshou’s poem recorded Leizu in Western Shu, and Kangxi’s poem recorded Leizu in Xiling. They were just the same as the research of experts and scholars nowadays, proving Yanting as the location of ancient Xiling once again.

Mr. Meng Wentong said in “Han Guru Pavilion Examination”: “Guru water in the territory of today’s Yanting, was known as Xiling River in ancient times.” Studying the local records, we know that: in ancient times, small tribes built the Xiling vassal state along the Xiling River, and selected Leizu, who invented sericulture, silk, and clothing as the chief. It was a strong country with a big territory. Later, the ancient Xiling country was united with the Central Plains by the marriage of Leizu and the Yellow Emperor, and Rayon Zu toured the world to teach the technique of planting mulberry and raising silkworms, and the strong ancient Xiling country gradually became weaker. With time changing, it was annihilated in the long river of history. Fortunately, although the ancient Xiling Kingdom no longer exists, there is still a great deal of folklore about it. Worship of Leizu in various places has never been extinguished, the remnants of the ruins still exist in large quantities, such as Yanting Sanyuan Cage Village marriage site, Huangdian Town Leizu Xuan dragon phoenix auspicious place, Shehong Leizu Silk Pool power station name, the southern Silk Uncle (Aunt) Mountain, Zhongjiang Phoenix Hill, etc. A large number of mountains and land belonging to the original ancient Xiling still retain the names related to Leizu, Pheonix, and Silk, which is also regarded as the cultural and psychological memory of the descendants of the Chinese nation in pursuit of the good, and is a tribute to the virtues of Leizu, the mother of the creation of the history of human civilization.


More on this topic

More Stories

Refreshing and Insights
at No Cost to You!

Cancel anytime

Latest Articles

Leave a Reply


Top Products

Contact us

Wherever & whenever you are,
we are here always.

The Middle Land

100 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 700 Santa Monica, CA 90401
Footer Contact

To Editor

Terms and Conditions

October, 2023

Using our website

You may use the The Middle Land website subject to the Terms and Conditions set out on this page. Visit this page regularly to check the latest Terms and Conditions. Access and use of this site constitutes your acceptance of the Terms and Conditions in-force at the time of use.

Intellectual property

Names, images and logos displayed on this site that identify The Middle Land are the intellectual property of New San Cai Inc. Copying any of this material is not permitted without prior written approval from the owner of the relevant intellectual property rights.

Requests for such approval should be directed to the competition committee.

Please provide details of your intended use of the relevant material and include your contact details including name, address, telephone number, fax number and email.

Linking policy

You do not have to ask permission to link directly to pages hosted on this website. However, we do not permit our pages to be loaded directly into frames on your website. Our pages must load into the user’s entire window.

The Middle Land is not responsible for the contents or reliability of any site to which it is hyperlinked and does not necessarily endorse the views expressed within them. Linking to or from this site should not be taken as endorsement of any kind. We cannot guarantee that these links will work all the time and have no control over the availability of the linked pages.


All information, data, text, graphics or any other materials whatsoever uploaded or transmitted by you is your sole responsibility. This means that you are entirely responsible for all content you upload, post, email or otherwise transmit to the The Middle Land website.

Virus protection

We make every effort to check and test material at all stages of production. It is always recommended to run an anti-virus program on all material downloaded from the Internet. We cannot accept any responsibility for any loss, disruption or damage to your data or computer system, which may occur while using material derived from this website.


The website is provided ‘as is’, without any representation or endorsement made, and without warranty of any kind whether express or implied.

Your use of any information or materials on this website is entirely at your own risk, for which we shall not be liable. It is your responsibility to ensure any products, services or information available through this website meet your specific requirements.

We do not warrant the operation of this site will be uninterrupted or error free, that defects will be corrected, or that this site or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or represent the full functionality, accuracy and reliability of the materials. In no event will we be liable for any loss or damage including, without limitation, loss of profits, indirect or consequential loss or damage, or any loss or damages whatsoever arising from the use, or loss of data, arising out of – or in connection with – the use of this website.

Privacy & Cookie Policy

October, 2023

Last Updated: October 1, 2023

New San Cai Inc. (hereinafter “The Middle Land,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) owns and operates www.themiddleland.com, its affiliated websites and applications (our “Sites”), and provides related products, services, newsletters, and other offerings (together with the Sites, our “Services”) to art lovers and visitors around the world.

This Privacy Policy (the “Policy”) is intended to provide you with information on how we collect, use, and share your personal data. We process personal data from visitors of our Sites, users of our Services, readers or bloggers (collectively, “you” or “your”). Personal data is any information about you. This Policy also describes your choices regarding use, access, and correction of your personal information.

If after reading this Policy you have additional questions or would like further information, please contact us.


We collect and process personal data only for lawful reasons, such as our legitimate business interests, your consent, or to fulfill our legal or contractual obligations.

Information You Provide to Us

Most of the information Join Talents collects is provided by you voluntarily while using our Services. We do not request highly sensitive data, such as health or medical information, racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, etc. and we ask that you refrain from sending us any such information.

Here are the types of personal data that you voluntarily provide to us:

  • Name, email address, and any other contact information that you provide by filling out your profile forms
  • Billing information, such as credit card number and billing address
  • Work or professional information, such as your company or job title
  • Unique identifiers, such as username or password
  • Demographic information, such as age, education, interests, and ZIP code
  • Details of transactions and preferences from your use of the Services
  • Correspondence with other users or business that you send through our Services, as well as correspondence sent to JoinTalents.com

As a registered users or customers, you may ask us to review or retrieve emails sent to your business. We will access these emails to provide these services for you.

We use the personal data you provide to us for the following business purposes:

  • Set up and administer your account
  • Provide and improve the Services, including displaying content based on your previous transactions and preferences
  • Answer your inquiries and provide customer service
  • Send you marketing communications about our Services, including our newsletters (please see the Your Rights/Opt Out section below for how to opt out of marketing communications)
  • Communicate with users who registered their accounts on our site
  • Prevent, discover, and investigate fraud, criminal activity, or violations of our Terms and Conditions
  • Administer contests and events you entered

Information Obtained from Third-Party Sources

We collect and publish biographical and other information about users, which we use to promote the articles and our bloggers  who use our sites. If you provide personal information about others, or if others give us your information, we will only use that information for the specific reason for which it was provided.

Information We Collect by Automated Means

Log Files

The site uses your IP address to help diagnose server problems, and to administer our website. We use your IP addresses to analyze trends and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use.

Every time you access our Site, some data is temporarily stored and processed in a log file, such as your IP addresses, the browser types, the operating systems, the recalled page, or the date and time of the recall. This data is only evaluated for statistical purposes, such as to help us diagnose problems with our servers, to administer our sites, or to improve our Services.

Do Not Track

Your browser or device may include “Do Not Track” functionality. Our information collection and disclosure practices, and the choices that we provide to customers, will continue to operate as described in this Privacy Policy, whether or not a “Do Not Track” signal is received.


We may share your personal data with third parties only in the ways that are described in this Privacy Policy. We do not sell, rent, or lease your personal data to third parties, and We does not transfer your personal data to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

We may share your personal data with third parties as follows:

  • With service providers under contract to help provide the Services and assist us with our business operations (such as our direct marketing, payment processing, fraud investigations, bill collection, affiliate and rewards programs)
  • As required by law, such as to comply with a subpoena, or similar legal process, including to meet national security or law enforcement requirements
  • When we believe in good faith that disclosure is necessary to protect rights or safety, investigate fraud, or respond to a government request
  • With other users of the Services that you interact with to help you complete a transaction

There may be other instances where we share your personal data with third parties based on your consent.


We retain your information for as long as your account is active or as needed to provide you Services. If you wish to cancel your account or request that we no longer use your personal data, contact us. We will retain and use your personal data as necessary to comply with legal obligations, resolve disputes, and enforce our agreements.

All you and our data are stored in the server in the United States, we do not sales or transfer your personal data to the third party. All information you provide is stored on a secure server, and we generally accepted industry standards to protect the personal data we process both during transmission and once received.


You may correct, update, amend, delete/remove, or deactivate your account and personal data by making the change on your Blog on www.themiddleland.com or by emailing our customer service. We will respond to your request within a reasonable timeframe.

You may choose to stop receiving Join Talents newsletters or marketing emails at any time by following the unsubscribe instructions included in those communications, or you can contact us.


The Middle Land include links to other websites whose privacy practices may differ from that of ours. If you submit personal data to any of those sites, your information is governed by their privacy statements. We encourage you to carefully read the Privacy Policy of any website you visit.


Our Services are not intended for use by children, and we do not knowingly or intentionally solicit data from or market to children under the age of 18. We reserve the right to delete the child’s information and the child’s registration on the Sites.


We may update this Privacy Policy to reflect changes to our personal data processing practices. If any material changes are made, we will notify you on the Sites prior to the change becoming effective. You are encouraged to periodically review this Policy.


If you have any questions about our Privacy Policy, please contact customer service or send us mail at:

The Middle Land/New San Cai
100 Wilshire Blvd., 7th Floor
Santa Monica, CA 90401

Article Submission


Are you sure? Do you want to logout of the account?

New Programs Added to Your Plan

March 2, 2023

The Michelin brothers created the guide, which included information like maps, car mechanics listings, hotels and petrol stations across France to spur demand.

The guide began to award stars to fine dining restaurants in 1926.

At first, they offered just one star, the concept was expanded in 1931 to include one, two and three stars. One star establishments represent a “very good restaurant in its category”. Two honour “excellent cooking, worth a detour” and three reward “exceptional cuisine, worth a


February 28, 2023        Hiring Journalists all hands apply

January 18, 2023          Hiring Journalists all hands apply


Leave a Reply

Forgot Password ?

Please enter your email id or user name to
recover your password

Thank you for your participation!
Back to Home
Thank you for your subscription!
Please check your email to activate your account.
Back to Home
Thank you for your participation!
Please check your email for the results.
Back to Home

Login to Vote!

Thank you for your participation,
please Log in or Sign up to Vote

Thank you for your Comment

Back to Home

Reply To:

New Programs Added to Your Plan

Login Now

123Sign in to your account